Talking about the exterior night illumination of the library building

Talking about the exterior night illumination of the library building

Talking about the Exterior Night Lighting of Library Buildings Library of Hebei Institute of Architecture and Technology Sun Xiuju, Handan City, Hebei Province, China 056038] The characteristics of night illumination outside the building of Sun Xiuju Library, focusing on the methods and design methods of night illumination outside the library building, and Click on the suggestion.

With the development of society and the increasing aesthetic taste of people, a building should have certain aesthetic and pleasure functions in addition to its practical functions. As a cultural place, the library has become a symbol of the level of civilization of a unit, a city and even a country. In addition to meeting the needs of people's reading and borrowing, the library should also become an important landscape of a place. The implementation of external night lighting to create a nighttime cultural atmosphere is a concrete manifestation of this function.

- Characteristics of night illumination outside the library building External night lighting is the use of lighting to shape the night image of the building, thus representing the unique artistic style of the building under the night.

Such nighttime lighting should be clearly distinguished from functional lighting in general indoors and outdoors, but should be clearly decorative and artistic. Only by combining lighting technology with art can we express the unique cultural connotation and artistic characteristics of the building.

In general, the night illumination of a building has great flexibility and diversity, subject to the functions and features of the building itself.

The library is a place of cultural activities. It is different from a commercial building and a general office building. It is different from a residential park. Its specific functions, environment and cultural connotation determine the color and lighting of its lighting. The direction of light projection and the selection of lighting equipment should not be separated from the theme. Instead, the architectural characteristics and environmental characteristics of the library should be closely combined with the appropriate lighting methods to create a good nighttime phenomenon in the library.

Second, the way of night lighting outside the library building (a) the facade lighting of the library. At present, the exterior night illumination of a building is mainly to create a nighttime ambient atmosphere of the building and its surrounding space by illuminating the facade of the building. Appropriate building facade lighting treatment can make the building have a variety of moving effects at night, which is not achieved during the day. Therefore, to study the façade lighting scheme, we should first grasp the characteristics of the library, observe the image of the library building when the angles are lost, and find the optimal solution. According to data analysis, model experiments or field observations of library buildings, we can find the optimal picture angle formed by the changing position of the sun throughout the day, as well as the contrast of the background and the role of light color, etc., and design a better plan. .

(2) Ways and design methods of facade lighting. The ways in which the library's facade lighting is summarized are as follows. The characteristics and practices of each method are introduced one by one.

Lighting along the contours of the library. This is a relatively simple lighting method. Through the direct delineation of the outline of the library building, especially for some beautifully constructed library buildings, under the decoration of the lanterns, certain artistic effects can be obtained. Almost all of the nighttime lighting of buildings since the founding of New China has adopted this type of lighting. For example, the Bengbu City Library is decorated with a contour light around the five-storey building. However, it should be noted that this kind of lighting can only outline the outline of the library, and the wall surface is still dark. Therefore, if conditions permit, it is best to combine it with other lighting methods and add light to the wall. Lighting, better to get a good overall result. At present, the lamps used for contour illumination have ordinary incandescent lamps, string lights, neon lights, beautiful lamps, light pipes, whole body light-emitting fiber tubes, laser tubes, low-light lamps and other linear lighting equipment to directly outline the building. In addition to incandescent lamps, a variety of other luminaires are available in a wide range of color combinations, which can also create dynamic effects to create good color effects and dynamic lighting effects. When selecting the contour light, it should be determined based on the detailed description of the library's contour shape, facing materials, maintenance difficulty, energy consumption and cost.

Use floodlighting. Projection lighting is the use of floodlights to directly illuminate the facade of a library building to create a nighttime image of the lighting. This method has strong stereoscopic effect and good lighting effect, and can better highlight the characteristics of a library. It is also the most used lighting method in building facade lighting. In order to obtain a good projection lighting effect, the following principles should be noted in the design: first, to determine the main lighting surface. Which surface should be irradiated as well, generally should be determined according to the probability of viewing. The face with more chances of viewing should be the main lighting surface. For example, the library of Hebei University of Architecture and Technology faces the campus and is opposite to the main teaching building. Select the facade to be the main lighting surface.

Second, we must determine the illuminance and brightness. Due to the different wall materials of different parts of the library, the convex and concave changes are different. When using light, the illuminance or brightness of different parts should be different, and the layering of the building should be added with strong sense of layering. The illuminance of the floodlighting depends on the texture, color, reflection coefficient and the brightness of the surrounding environment. The same illuminance produces different brightness on the wall surface with different reflection coefficients. When the wall is dirty, the illuminance should be appropriately increased. If the surrounding background is dark, less light can be used to make the building exceed the brightness. Background; if the indoor lighting of a building adjacent to the library is bright at night, more light needs to be projected onto the facade of the library building, otherwise the effect will not be highlighted; if the library background is brighter, then Use more light to get the desired contrast.

Third, we must reasonably choose the direction and angle of projection. Mastering the direction of light projection is very helpful for the three-dimensional sense of strong lighting and the characteristics and texture of the decorative materials. In the projection design, you should make full use of the various features of the building (such as rectangular, square, circular, vertical with vertical lines, vertical lines with vertical lines, etc.). In general, the illuminated beam cannot illuminate the illuminated surface vertically, but is obliquely incident on the illuminated surface, and this illumination direction should be inconsistent with the direction of viewing, as the shadow image will appear dull on the building. For example, a library is a rectangular parallelepiped or a cube. When the surface is flat, the angle of incidence is generally 6085 degrees. The illuminated surface has a large convex and concave portion. The incident angle is 060 degrees to form moderate shadows and good three-dimensionality and perspective. . To focus on the detailed features of the illuminated surface and the texture of the material, the angle of incidence should be 8085 degrees, and diffuse light should be used as much as possible. If the library is a round or cylindrical building with a flat surface, the angle of incidence is 090 degrees and at least three projection points should be set. In this way, the central part of the building will be bright and the sides will be dark, with a three-dimensional and circular feel.

Fourth, glare and light interference should be prevented from being cast. The brightness of the facade lighting should be reasonable, otherwise it will cause light pollution and endanger people's normal life, such as affecting car drivers driving at night and aircraft night flights. In addition, some materials, such as glass, are light-transmitting materials, and the light-reflecting coefficient is small. The light projected onto the surface is not reflected, but is injected into the room, which has no lighting effect and causes serious light interference to indoor personnel. Therefore, libraries of glass curtain walls should not use floodlighting.

Fifth, the luminaires for floodlighting should generally use a light projector. The layout and number of light projectors should take into account the size, shape, height, landscape requirements and surrounding environment of the library. To avoid glare, a light cover or grille should be installed on the emitter. The light projectors are generally arranged in groups, with the principle of being concealed and easy to project light, and the light is not visible. The arrangement of the light projector is generally as follows: the building itself, such as the wall root and the window sill; the nearby ground, such as on the lawn, in the flower beds, on the trees, on the ground, and on other places, such as poles and overheads. If these places are combined and used, it will produce better results.

Light transmission inside. The inner light-transmitting illumination usually uses the indoor light to transmit outward to form a nighttime illumination effect. At present, most buildings in foreign countries use this method, and the buildings with bright lights give people a deeper impression. For example, in 1993, the Cleveland Library of the United States was rebuilt and expanded. The building center is a 10-story, oval-shaped glass tower. At night, the lights are bright, and the glass tower is crystal-clear. It expresses the library as a knowledge light. Symbolizes the iconic building of the city at night. Due to the different conditions in China, the implementation of the internal light-transmission lighting scheme for the entire building is not suitable for China's national conditions. Based on the principle of economy, you can consider indoors by the window or the part that needs to focus on the night scene. Specially set the internal light-transmitting lighting facilities to form a light-transmitting light-emitting surface or illuminant to represent the night view of the library building.

Other lighting methods. With the development of high-tech such as laser, fiber optics, holography, especially computer technology and its promotion in night lighting, people have used special methods and means to create special night lighting. Due to the use of high-tech means, special lighting has a unique effect, which gives people a stronger and deeper impression and has a very broad development prospect.

Third, the nighttime lighting outside the library building needs to pay attention to the problem (1) use the light to have the primary and secondary, highlight the key points. The night illumination of the library does not require that all parts be illuminated as brightly. Instead, the main light is used to highlight the key parts in order to make the lighting layered. For example, the overall concept of the night lighting design of the newly-built Shanghai Library is to highlight the image of the two towers with the main light on the city skyline, and highlight the two entrance plazas in Huaihai Zhong Road and Gao'an Road. The tower and the podium wall are treated with low brightness, which highlights the characteristics of the building and has a strong contrast between light and dark.

(2) Reasonable use of shades. The use of colored light illumination can create a colorful festive atmosphere, which is difficult to achieve with the colorless lighting, but the color of the light is too high, too many colors, will give people a sense of makeup, causing visual confusion, reducing the library The cultural taste of the building. Generally speaking, the night lighting of library buildings should be based on solemnity, conciseness and simplicity. It is not appropriate to use colored light too much, that is, it can only be used locally with low-color shades. For example, the Shanghai Library pays special attention to it. The cultural nature of the library, the use of colorless light, consistent with the character of the building, eliminating the excessive lighting method of commercial buildings.

The lighting methods listed above are not independent of each other. In many cases, especially for large-scale library buildings, the comprehensive use mechanism gradually realizes the enterprise management of university libraries. Let every staff feel both pressure and motivation. The era of knowledge economy is the era of talent sovereignty. Excellent talents will have more self-employment rights and give full play to the enthusiasm of each staff member in order to achieve true scientific management.

Second, the implementation of the combination of objectives and knowledge management method Target management, also known as effect management, it is under the guidance of the importance of results, the library director and staff work together to determine the work objectives of a certain period, layer by layer, schedule progress, Concrete implementation and achievements. Strict assessment and evaluation is a scientific management method to achieve management objectives. The implementation of target management is the only way for all kinds of libraries in China to move from administrative management to scientific management. Goal management includes three stages: development, implementation, and evaluation of objectives. The determination of goals can strengthen people's sense of competition, and the determination and implementation of goals provide a stage for library staff to take initiative and creativity. Through the target test, it strengthens the evaluation of internal work and the assessment of the staff, encourages hard work and pays attention to the effect, is conducive to mobilizing the enthusiasm of the staff, and is conducive to improving work efficiency. It is an effective management method. The core of the implementation of target management is to establish a high degree of coordination within the library from the leadership to the staff, so that the entire staff can better serve the readers. Under the knowledge economy, according to the university library's own conditions, the use of disk, CD-ROM as a carrier of electronic publications, online online search, database and Internet and other new technologies, to play their own advantages, to cultivate a way to capture information through various channels To maximize the amount of information, the ability to analyze and predict information, and to make the information economically profitable, form an internal coordination mechanism that is highly adaptable to knowledge changes.

Goal management and knowledge management complement each other. Goal management is an important means to achieve knowledge management, and knowledge management is the main basis for setting target management. Knowledge management is the use of collective intelligence to improve the management of organizational resilience and innovation. Knowledge management is people-centered, based on information management, with the goal of knowledge innovation. It is a new humanistic management idea, which is the management of human intellectual capital. It advocates human initiative and is the intellectual development of human beings. Management with incentives. The library is the organization of information management. Its purpose is to meet the various information needs of users. The essence of knowledge management is to link information and information, information and people, information and processes, not only the collection and storage of information. Organize and deliver systematic and rigorous organizational management, further grasp the interrelationship between knowledge, create a mechanism and platform for the interaction between tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge, and thus create new knowledge to meet the needs of social development. Everything is the foundation of the maintenance and development of university libraries. In order to implement knowledge management, university libraries must not only establish a hardware environment including infrastructures such as information technology-based knowledge management systems, but also use large database technologies, new search technologies, and intelligent agent search engines in the storage and dissemination of knowledge. And network technology, etc.; also build a knowledge-based library culture and corresponding management mechanisms, employment mechanisms and other software environments, to improve the library's resilience and innovation capabilities by comprehensively improving the quality of staff.

Knowledge management focuses on the management of knowledge processes for people and people. Therefore, university libraries should regard the development of staff tacit knowledge resources as an important way to improve efficiency. Pay attention to guiding and exerting the enthusiasm and creativity of the staff, and prompting the staff to turn the information owned by the library into knowledge, satisfy the users, win the users, and fully realize the professionalization and individualization of the services. Personalization means that the knowledge service of university libraries should create an information activity environment that adapts to individual psychology and behavior, and at the same time gather information resources related to individuals, and provide personal characteristics of the retrieval and utilization service mechanism, reduce management level and repeat operations, and resources are reasonable. Configuration, the flexibility and flexibility of strong organizational operations, and promote the development of the library itself. Realize the integration with various information systems, bring vitality to the sharing, optimization, cooperation and knowledge innovation of resources. Promote knowledge sharing while also paying attention to the protection of knowledge. For some intellectual assets that constitute core competitiveness, they should be strictly controlled. Knowledge management requires a scalable system that requires a security mechanism. Knowledge management is more complicated than pure university library services. It involves a series of complex activities such as research and development, technology management, organizational design, service marketing, and user participation.

We must sum up experience in constant exploration, adapt university libraries to the needs of the era of knowledge economy, better serve the teaching and scientific research of colleges and universities, and thus better serve the society.

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